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The friendship between the Turkish Republic and the Soviet Union, rooted in the Turkish War of Independence, had developed in an atmosphere of reciprocal respect and cooperation. Both governments saw in this friendship a service to their national interest. The Montreux Convention marked the beginning of with a gradual carefully phased-out withdrawal of Turkey from the policy of firm cooperation with the Soviet Union. In the years that followed the Montreux Conference, Turkey’s relations with the Western European countries especially with England improved steadily. 1930’s Turkey had recognized the twin dangers of Italian and German hegemony in Europe and in the Mediterranean. In the spring months 1939, Britain and France sought to establih a common front with the Soviet Union.The meetings between Britain, France and Turkey ended with the Turco-British and Turco-French Declarations of 12 May 1939 and 23 June 1939 respectively. The Soviet Union would not like Turkey such an action which bring the Western Powers closer to the Black Sea. Turkish Foreign Minister Şükrü Saraçoğlu visited Moskow between September 23 and October 17, 1939. During the first meeting on the 26th September, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov confronted him with a demand to close the Straits and change on the Montreux Provisions. By September and October 1939, The Soviet demands were not considered comparable with the Turkish policy regarding the Straits. Thus the meetings of Turkish-Soviet remained unsuccesfully because of Soviet demands. And this period marked the beginning of the unfriendly relations between Turkey and the Soviet Russia. After the declarations of 1939’s between Turkey, England and France, Turkey took a bolder step on October 19th of the same year by signing a long term security pact with Britain and France. This treaty defined categorically what would be the policy of Turkey in the Second World War.

Turkish-Soviet Relations, Second World War, Montreux Convention, The Soviet Union, 1939 Turkish-Engl

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