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Abstract


A PART OF RUSSIAN OCCUPATIONS IN TURKISTAN: TRANS-CASPIAN RAILWAY PROJECT (1879-1903)
The rivalry between Britain and Russia in the second half of the 19th century regarding the dominance of Turkestan resulted in the Russian occupation of the region. During the occupation, Russia took care not to use military force unnecessarily and, in a way, seized the region strategically. Russia, which has taken control of Turkestan to a great extent, has applied various strategic methods in order to ensure lasting sovereignty in the region. Railway policy, which is our subject of study, is one of the methods that Russia has used to increase its political and military power over Turkestan. One of the biggest difficulties that Russia faced during the occupation of Turkestan was the Turkmen in the Merv region. In the struggle against the Turkmens, Russia's difficulties in shipment of soldiers and ammunition to the region revealed the need for railway. Towards the end of the 19th century, Russia began to build railways in Turkestan for political and military purposes, such as increasing control over Turkestan and facilitating the shipment of troops to the region. The railways, which were mostly built for military purposes, after a while began to serve Russian colonialism. One of these railways, the Trans-Caspian railway project, emerged as a result of Russia's transportation difficulties especially during the Göktepe expedition. In our study were discussed; Russia's Trans-Caspian railway construction process, the route of the railway, the status of the Teke Turkmens working in the construction of railways, the services of the railways, which later gained a more commercial character, to Russian colonialism.

Keywords
Turkestan, Russia, Turkmens, Trans-Caspian Railway.


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