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Abstract


RUSSIANS AND TURKMENS COMMERCIAL RELATIONS ON THE CASPIAN SEA (18TH- 19TH CENTURIES)
The Caspian Sea is located at the junction point of big trade routes since the first ages of history. For this reason, the communities living around the sea somehow get involved in the international commercial network. According to Islamic resources, there were the Turkmens in the east of Caspian in the 10th Century. And there is also some information in the resources that the Turkmen plunder the goods in ships smashed in the storm in Siyahkuh (Mangyshlak) region in the east part of the sea. First records concerning the relations of the Turkmen with Caspian is as above. Especially since the 18th Century in the works of travelers who visit the region and in the reports of the Committees sent by Russia, it is recorded in detail that the Turkmen doing business with Russia, Iran and Turkistan through harbors in the south-east of Caspian. And in the 19th Century, both commerce and competition with Russia in the Caspian Sea came into question. In this work, Russian – Turkmen commercial relations started with Russia’s turning to the region especially as from the era of Peter the Great and the struggles between Russian and Turkmen seamen will be examined.

Keywords
Caspian, Turkmen, Russia, Trade, Smuggling


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