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While evaluted by the records of the Drifter, Court Records, Population Registry and Deed Books and other archive resources and the given information by the period pilgrims and based on the scientific studies, this study analyzes population, policy of internal and external settlements, the percentage of Muslim and non-Muslim population in total population, what kind of cases that effects into decreasing and increasing of the population, whether religion conversion affected into increasing of Muslim population or not in the period of five centuries between XV.-XIX. centuries. The reasons of increasing and decreasing of the population are mainly exile, policy of internal and external setlements and forced migrations because of wars. It also obtained that the other causes of migration are fires, chaos athmosphere because of lack of authority, persecution of administrators and brigandage towards the population, heavily increased taxes because of wars, seeking jobs of the people because of hard living conditions and also desirement of the people so as to living more secure places. In addition, attacks of Kazakh pirates, epidemic diseases such as plague and cholera affected to important decreasing and partition of population. This study is concluded by that there is not any significant effects of religion conversion in order Turkish identity to be put forward. It has been obtained that the growth of Muslim Turkish population living in the city of Trabzon was caused by relocation of Çepni, Akkoyunlu, Dulkadirli and Karaman Turks in this city and of particulary Muslims who were exposed to forced migration from Batum, Crimea and Caucasus in the period of XIX. century, in addition to Muslim Turkish population coming from city and district inside border of Ottoman State.

City of Trabzon, district, population, settlement, migration, plague.

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