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Abstract


APPROACHING E-DEMOCRACY THROUGH E-PARTICIPATION: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
The developments experienced in information and communication technologies deeply affected the relations between state and citizens, public administration bodies and policy making processes as well as all areas of life. Thus, at the beginning of the 1990's, the widespread use of the internet opened the way for electronicization of social and public life. The process began with the one sided online provision of public services by the state to citizens and thus the electronicization of the state has evolved into a two-way process in which citizens can participate as actors in the process, and they can share their demands, wishes, and expectations as well as the content they create. Today, the concepts such as internet, e-government, digital state, e-democracy, e-participation, e-voting, e-citizen, e-municipality, smart cities, and social media are being pronounced continually and used very frequently and these concepts also gain new meanings day by day. In the period when the electronicization took place in the state and public administrations, the phenomenon of democracy took th prefix of "e" and so it kept the electronic era. One of the most important factors in e-democracy is "participation" in order for the democracy to be established with full certainty. Indeed, the right of citizens to participate in the processes of electing public officials and giving the right of representing themselves on the basis of participation is considered to be the premise of other principles of democracy. In this direction, the aim of this study is to analyze the concepts of e-democracy, e-participation, and e-governance and to analyze the relationship between them. In the study, the concept of e-democracy was first discussed, the definitions of e-democracy in the literature were expressed, and the aim and application areas of e-democracy were mentioned. Then, the concept of e-participation is examined in the context of e-governance and the elements of e-participation are examined in the context of "actors of e-participation, factors affecting e-participation, e-participation activities, effects of e-participation, and evaluation of e-participation". The study was formed by a qualitative method.

Keywords
Democracy, Digitalization, E-Democracy, E-Participation, E-Governance.


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