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Abstract


MENTAL CONVERSION IN TURKISH HIGHER EDUCATION FROM DÂRÜ’L-FÜNÛN TO UNIVERSITY
It is possible to talk about a systematic and conscious approach to education and training in many Turkish states in line with the Huns, Gokturk and Uighurs who were established in the historical period, as well as the Karahans, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, Altınordu, Timurids and Ottomans in the Islamic period. In the period of Seljuk State Nizam-ül Mülk madrasahs and in the period of Anatolian Seljuks, Konya, Kayseri and Sivas madrasahs with their scientific studies and graduates in their periods have reached a widespread reputation. During the Ottoman period, the conception of establishing successful higher education institutions, which started with Iznik Madrasah for the first time in the period of Orhan I, reached the peak with the Fatih and Süleymaniye Madrasahs. Especially the developments in madrasahs during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent is noteworthy. The establishment of four new madrasahs for the teaching of mathematics, together with the Darül-şifa Madrasah, which take the name of Darül-tıp, and the Darül-hadith can be regarded as the most obvious indicators of the importance given to science and thus education in the Ottoman Empire. However, after XVI. century, the positive sciences were neglected in madrasahs, and the educational programs gained a religious character that replicated itself completely. Mühendishane-i Bahr-i Hümayun, which was founded in 1773 as the first sign of the break from the traditional madrasah system, is an important breaking point in the change of the higher education system. Although the desire of idea transformation felt seriously in the 19th century may have led to a quest in the Ottoman Empire, it is not possible to talk about a university like Western countries because of long-term wars, riots, land losses, and economic collapse. It was then decided to establish Darül-fünûn, but in 1863, seventeen years after the planned date, this target could be realized. However, because of the fire in the year 1865, the building of the Darül-fünûn disappeared and it caused a break in education, it was necessary to wait for the year 1870 to continue education. Darül-fünûn is not in a position to compete with Western countries in terms of physical structure, teaching programs and staff and student profile and above all in terms of application idea and scientific production. Another important development that took place after the foreign lecturers included in the structure of the system in 1915 was the establishment of 19 research institutes in 1920. This dual structure continued until the Republican period. In this article, Turkish Higher Education Institutions have been examined by taking into consideration the historical development line, positive and negative aspects, successes and failures have been tried to be put forward with an objective perspective. Here, it is examined whether the old and new educational institutions create a scientific mentality difference. The basic starting point of the study is to examine whether there has been “a mentality revolution” within the development line extending from Darül-fünun to the university. The establishment of universities and developments in the world are excluded, developments only concerning Turkey took part in the study to the extent that they allow comparative analysis. The developments in the pre-Republican period have been discussed in the first part, and in the second part the university reform in 1933 has been evaluated and the structure of today's higher education institutions has been examined.

Keywords
Universty, Mental Conversıon, Darulfunun


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