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    Üniversitesi Öğretim Üyesi

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Abstract


EMBASSY IMAMS OF THE OTTOMAN STATE
In the Ottoman Empire, it was seen that both extraordinary ambassadors and first residence embassies also included imams occasionally. However, real sense of the institutional identity of embassy imams constituted during the reign of Abdulhamid II. A regulation was established by his order in 1891. Imams were assigned to major embassies of Berlin, London, Paris, Rome, St. Petersburg and Vienna. Number of six imams was going to be increased to seven by conversion of Washington mission to an embassy. Embassy imams were selected by examination of the Department of Meşihat. Their term of office was limited as one year by the insistence of Abdulhamid II. However, the first appointed names, with a compulsory exception, remained until the end of Abdulhamid’s reign. Appointments of the new imams to the embassies, was only possible with the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy. Besides, there were some changes in the determination of imam. Sınce their madrasa graduate was considered as insufficient for the mission, a special attention was paid to choose among the graduates of the Law School. Further, determination of imams to be assigned, was left to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in place of Department of Meşihat. In spite of the regulations made in both periods, it cannot be said that institution of embassy imams could not be placed on a certain basis and even a serious description of the office had not been made. It may also be said that not only as officials of the largest independent Islamic country of this period but also as only representatives of Islamic caliph, they had not been useful enough. It is seen that some of them behaved inappropriately as a representative of scholar class of the period. However, among them, there are also those who conducted scientific researches and engaged important activities. This office was removed with the current regime. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider this office which was part of the embassy chancellery as the pioneer of religious officers working abroad under the Presidency of Religious Affairs.

Keywords
Ottoman Empire, Abdulhamid II, 2nd Constitutional Monarchy, Embassy Imams.


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